注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

及时渔的空间

交益友,读好书.科技、人文、教育、艺术、、.来者都是客,请坐,喝茶。

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

到互连网上交友,学习来了。 我出生在海边,爱大海,爱水。职业是教师,但永远做学生,童心未泯,以新奇和探索的眼光看世界。

网易考拉推荐

(转载)世界文化遗产之颐和园  

2017-09-22 08:31:32|  分类: 文化 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
世界文化遗产之颐和园


Summer Palace - Cultural Landscape of the World

“北京颐和园始建于公元1750年,1860年在战火中严重损毁,1886年在原址上重新进行了修缮。其亭台、长廊、殿堂、庙宇和小桥等人工景观与自然山峦和开阔的湖面相互和谐、艺术地融为一体,堪称中国风景园林设计中的杰作。”以上是1998年联合国教科文组织将北京颐和园列入世界文化遗产时对其作出的评价。

颐和园原名清漪园,位于北京西山脚下,是中国清朝帝后的行宫和花园,为前清“三山五园”中的最后一座。颐和园占地2.97平方公里,主体结构由万寿山与昆明湖两部分组成,湖水面积占全园面积的四分之三。各种形式的宫殿园林建筑达3000余间,共100多处景观,大体分为五个区域:朝政寝宫景区、昆明湖景区、万寿前山景区、万寿山点景区与万寿后山景区。

朝政寝宫景区位于颐和园东宫门内,以仁寿殿为中心。其中仁寿殿是清朝皇帝处理朝政和外事活动的场所,乐寿堂为慈禧太后生活起居之所,玉澜堂是光绪皇帝居住的地方,还有包括对中国京剧艺术的形成和发展起过重要影响的德和园大戏楼等。

昆明湖景区是全园最大的景区,湖中有三岛象征神仙居住的蓬莱、方丈、瀛洲,三岛布局是中国传统的“一池三山”模式的体现。湖东岸为东堤,上有昆仑石碑、廓如亭、铜牛等,其中十七孔桥优美的横颐湖上,是通往三岛中最大的南湖岛的捷径。西堤位于湖西侧,堤上烟柳成行,上建六座风格迥异的拱桥。

万寿前山景区以佛香阁为中心,为全园营造出逐渐上升的规模庞大、气势不凡的建筑群。从横卧于湖边的长廊开始,自云辉玉宇牌楼逐级向上,穿过排云殿、德晖殿,直抵佛香阁,最高处的智慧海位于万寿山顶。中轴线上的整组建筑尽显磅礴大气又对称严谨,是皇家园林的造园典范。

万寿山点景区是散落在佛香阁西侧的数组建筑组成,是中轴线建筑有力的陪衬。其中清晏舫是由大理石制成的不动舟,但船舱在改建时由中式变成了西洋式建筑;听鹂馆的大戏楼由是由坐北朝南改建成了坐南朝北;画中游由三亭二楼一斋一坊组成,各组建筑由爬山廊沟通,移步易景,如人入画。

万寿后山景区特色分明,中心景区是后山中轴线上的四大部洲建筑群。四大部洲是汉藏结合的建筑风格,有着大红台与喇嘛塔,是依佛经对世界的理解而规划建成的;位于北宫门内的苏州街是一处以江南水乡集市为蓝本的建筑群,它以后溪河为主线,采取一河二街的形式,成为现存宫市里的孤本;谐趣园位于颐和园东北角,是一处江南园林风格的园中园。

“First built in 1750, the Summer Palace in Beijing was severely damaged during the flames of war in 1860. The original site was renovated in 1886. The Summer Palace incorporated artificial landscapes like pavilions, corridors, palaces, temples, and bridges with natural mountains and wide lakes into an organic whole harmoniously and aesthetically environment. It could be called a masterpiece within the Chinese landscape designs.” UNESCO made the above comments when they included the Summer Palace in Beijing in its World Heritage List in 1998.

The Summer Palace, originally named ‘Qingyi Yuan’ or the ‘Garden of Clear Ripples’, was built at the base of the Western Hills of Beijing and served as a temporary palace and garden for the Empresses during the Qing Dynasty. It is known as the last of the famous “Three Hills and Five Gardens” (Longevity Hill, Jade Spring Mountain, and Fragrant Hill; Garden of Clear Ripples, Garden of Everlasting Spring, Garden of Perfection and Brightness, Garden of Tranquility and Brightness, and Garden of Tranquility and Pleasure). The Summer Palace, covering an area of 2.97 square kilometers, was mainly dominated by Longevity Hill and Kunming Lake, three quarters of which is under water. With more than 3,000 palace and garden architectures of various forms and more than 100 separate landscapes, the Summer Palace can be generally divided into five areas: the Imperial Residence Scenic Area, Kunming Lake Scenic Area, Longevity Hill - Front Hill Scenic Area, Longevity Hill Scenic Area, and Longevity Hill - Rear Hill Scenic Area.

The Imperial Residence Scenic Area is within the East Palace Gate of Summer Palace, and the Hall of Benevolence and Longevity is at its center. The Hall of Benevolence and Longevity served as the place where emperors, during the Qing Dynasty, handled the state and foreign affairs; the Hall of Happiness and Longevity served as the living quarters for Empress Dowager Cixi; the Hall of Jade Ripples served as the living place for Emperor Guangxu; and the Grand Opera Tower in the Hall of Virtue and Harmony played an important role in the formation and development of the art of the Chinese Peking Opera.

The Kunming Lake Scenic Area is the largest scenic area at the Summer Palace, and has three islands symbolizing fairylands Penglai, Fangzhang, and Yingzhou whose layouts reflect the Chinese traditional pattern of “One Pool and Three Hills.” To the east of Kunming Lake lies the East Bank, where there is the Kunlun Stone Tablet, Kuoru Pavilion, Bronze Ox, etc., and the Seventeen-Arch Bridge crosses over part of Kunming Lake elegantly. The bridge provides a shortcut to South Lake Island, which is the largest among the three islands. To the west of Kunming Lake lies the West Bank, with rows upon rows of willow trees and six arch bridges designed with different styles.

Longevity Hill - Front Hill Scenic Area adopts the Pavilion of the Buddhist Incense as center, creating a group of gradual upward architectures at an enormous scale and with extraordinary momentum. When you start your walk from the corridor lying on the lakeside, you will gradually go upward from the Glowing Clouds and Holy Land Archway, and then go straight to the Pavilion of the Buddhist Incense, passing through the Hall of Dispelling Clouds (Paiyundian), and then the Hall of Moral Glory (Dehuidian). The highest “Sea of Wisdom” Temple is situated on the very top of Longevity Hill. With the majestic momentum and strict symmetry, the whole group of architectures on the central axis becomes the model of landscape gardening among the imperial gardens.

Longevity Hill Scenic Area is composed of several groups of architectures scattering at the west of the Pavilion of the Buddhist Incense, and serves as a mighty foil for architectures on the central axis. The Qingyan Stone Boat is a motionless boat made of marble, but its cabin has been transformed into a western-style architecture from the Chinese style; the location of the Grand Opera Tower in the Hall for Listening to Orioles has been changed to face north from facing south; the “Strolling Through a Picture Scroll” is composed of three pavilions, two towers, one room, and one archway. All architectures connect with each other with sloping galleries; you will feel you are taking a tour in a painting because the scenery changes as you walk.

Longevity Hill - Rear Hill Scenic Area has its own distinct characteristics. Its main scenic spots are the architectures of four great regions on the central axis of the rear hill. With Grand Red Houses and Lama Towers, incorporated the Sino-Tibetan architectural style, the Four Great Regions were planned to be built based on the understanding of the world by Buddhist Scriptures; Suzhou Street is within the North Palace Gate and is a place with an architectural complex modeled after the Jiangnan Watertown market. It takes the Houxi River as its main line. It becomes the only one among the different existing palace markets with its layout of “One River and Two Streets”; the Garden of Harmonious Interests lies at the northeast corner of the Summer Palace, and is a garden in gardens depicting the Jiangnan design style.




Summer Palace - Cultural Landscape of the World


(转载)世界文化遗产之颐和园 - 及时渔、及时语 - 及时渔的空间
 

 
(转载)世界文化遗产之颐和园 - 及时渔、及时语 - 及时渔的空间
 
(转载)世界文化遗产之颐和园 - 及时渔、及时语 - 及时渔的空间
 
(转载)世界文化遗产之颐和园 - 及时渔、及时语 - 及时渔的空间
 

(转载)世界文化遗产之颐和园 - 及时渔、及时语 - 及时渔的空间


 


  评论这张
 
阅读(7)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2018