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(转载)世界文化遗产之苏州古典园林  

2017-09-20 10:47:00|  分类: 艺术 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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世界文化遗产之苏州古典园林

The Classical Gardens of Suzhou - Cultural Landscape of the World

“没有哪些园林比历史名城苏州的园林更能体现出中国古典园林设计的理想品质。咫尺之内再造乾坤,苏州园林被公认是实现这一设计思想的典范。这些建造于11-18世纪的园林,以其精雕细琢的设计,折射出中国文化中取法自然而又超越自然的深邃意境。”

这是1997联合国教科文组织将以拙政园、留园、网师园、环秀山庄为代表的苏州古典园林列入世界遗产名录时,对其作出的评价。2000年,该组织又将沧浪亭、狮子林、艺圃、耦园、退思园一并作为扩展项目列入世界遗产名录。

古典园林的兴盛与姑苏温润宜人的自然气候与富庶安稳的人民生活有着必然的联系。从史料上看,苏州园林的概念可追溯到西周时期,至春秋战国时,这里作为吴国都城已遍布吴王的山水园囿,经秦汉发展到第一个高潮。不过那时,这些园林大多以皇室官员之意志而存在。直至隋唐,文人园林在此兴起,浓郁的人文气息也因造园者的不同,而被赋予在自然山水园林间,苏州园林浓缩了数个世纪中国文人的审美,开始了对后世影响深远的写意山水园林。在此基础上形成的颇能代表中国私家园林不同阶段的沧浪亭、狮子林、拙政园、留园主体部分分别诞生于宋、元、明、清。走近它们,就好似依照历史的脉络,翻开一轴生动雅致的中国山水文化画卷。

总体上来说,苏州园林的的造园艺术表现为对山、石、水、木等要素的完美运用,以达到超越自然山水之美。这些深藏于繁华都市中的私家园林,处处点缀着轩、亭、阁、榭,成就了弹丸天地里的万千世界,最终形成中国古代文人思想与自然山水完美融合的写意之境。


The Classical Gardens of Suzhou - Cultural Landscape of the World

“没有哪些园林比历史名城苏州的园林更能体现出中国古典园林设计的理想品质。咫尺之内再造乾坤,苏州园林被公认是实现这一设计思想的典范。这些建造于11-18世纪的园林,以其精雕细琢的设计,折射出中国文化中取法自然而又超越自然的深邃意境。”

这是1997联合国教科文组织将以拙政园、留园、网师园、环秀山庄为代表的苏州古典园林列入世界遗产名录时,对其作出的评价。2000年,该组织又将沧浪亭、狮子林、艺圃、耦园、退思园一并作为扩展项目列入世界遗产名录。

古典园林的兴盛与姑苏温润宜人的自然气候与富庶安稳的人民生活有着必然的联系。从史料上看,苏州园林的概念可追溯到西周时期,至春秋战国时,这里作为吴国都城已遍布吴王的山水园囿,经秦汉发展到第一个高潮。不过那时,这些园林大多以皇室官员之意志而存在。直至隋唐,文人园林在此兴起,浓郁的人文气息也因造园者的不同,而被赋予在自然山水园林间,苏州园林浓缩了数个世纪中国文人的审美,开始了对后世影响深远的写意山水园林。在此基础上形成的颇能代表中国私家园林不同阶段的沧浪亭、狮子林、拙政园、留园主体部分分别诞生于宋、元、明、清。走近它们,就好似依照历史的脉络,翻开一轴生动雅致的中国山水文化画卷。

总体上来说,苏州园林的的造园艺术表现为对山、石、水、木等要素的完美运用,以达到超越自然山水之美。这些深藏于繁华都市中的私家园林,处处点缀着轩、亭、阁、榭,成就了弹丸天地里的万千世界,最终形成中国古代文人思想与自然山水完美融合的写意之境。

“Classical Chinese garden design, which seeks to recreate natural landscapes in miniature, is no better illustrated anywhere else than at the classical gardens in the historic city of Suzhou. They are generally acknowledged to be masterpieces of the genre. Dating from the 11th-18th century, the gardens reflect the profound metaphysical importance of natural beauty in Chinese culture through their meticulous design.”

This is the assessment made by UNESCO when it inscribed the Classic Gardens of Suzhou, represented by the Humble Administrator’s Garden, the Lingering Garden, the Master-of-Nets Garden, and the Mountain Villa with Embracing Beauty on the World Heritage List in 1997. In 2000, UNESCO approved the extension of the inscribed property of the Classical Gardens of Suzhou to include the Canglang Pavilion, the Lion Forest Garden, the Garden of Cultivation, the Couple’s Garden Retreat, and the Retreat & Reflection Garden.

The prosperity of classical gardens has a necessary connection with the warm and cozy natural climate and prosperous and stable life of the people living in Suzhou. Historically, the concept of Classical Gardens of Suzhou dates back to the Western Zhou Dynasty. “Mountain and Water” gardens of the King of the State of Wu could be found everywhere in Suzhou, the capital city of the State of Wu during the Spring and Autumn Period, and reached its first climax after the development during the Qin and Han Dynasties. However, the existence of these gardens depended on the will of the royal family and the officials. Gardens by the scholars prospered in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, and various rich human elements resulted because different garden builders who created them had their own interpretation of the natural mountain and water gardens. As the embodiment of aesthetics of Chinese scholars for several centuries, these gardens paved the way for the freehand style of mountain and water gardens which had far-reaching influences on future generations. The main bodies of the Canglang Pavilion, the Lion Forest Garden, the Humble Administrator’s Garden, and the Lingering Garden are excellent representatives of Chinese private gardens from different periods and they emerged during the Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties respectively. Walking through these gardens is like viewing vivid elegant scrolls of Chinese mountain and water paintings of different historical periods.

Generally, the garden-building art of the Classical Gardens of Suzhou is demonstrated in the perfect arrangement of such elements of mountains, rocks, water, and wood to attain the beauty beyond natural mountains and water. These private gardens, concealed in the prosperous city and dotted with rooms, pavilions, halls, and waterside pavilions, create miniature worlds in limited spaces and finally form the perfect freehand style integration of the ideas and pursuits of Chinese ancient scholars and natural mountains and water.



 (转载)世界文化遗产之苏州古典园林 - 及时渔、及时语 - 及时渔的空间
 
(转载)世界文化遗产之苏州古典园林 - 及时渔、及时语 - 及时渔的空间
  
(转载)世界文化遗产之苏州古典园林 - 及时渔、及时语 - 及时渔的空间
 
(转载)世界文化遗产之苏州古典园林 - 及时渔、及时语 - 及时渔的空间


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